Orthodontics is a specialty of dentistry that corrects the position of improperly positioned teeth and jaw bones. Crooked teeth or teeth that do not fit together properly are difficult to keep clean and can be lost early due to decay and periodontal disease.
They also place additional stress on the chewing muscles that can lead to headaches, TMJ syndrome, and pain in the neck, shoulders, and back. Crooked or misplaced teeth also affect your appearance.
Orthodontic treatment makes the mouth healthier, provides a more pleasant appearance and teeth that can last a lifetime. If you have any of the following problems, you may be a candidate for orthodontic treatment: Overbite, sometimes called "protruding teeth" - this problem is characterized by a vertical excess of the anterior maxillary region and/or an over-eruption of the teeth of that region.
In cases of overbite, the upper front teeth cover almost 100% of the lower teeth, giving an unpleasant smile and chewing problems. The lower teeth may even be touching the palate and gingiva of the upper arch. Anterior crossbite - a "bulldog" appearance, when the lower jaw is projected too far forward or the upper jaw is positioned too far back. Crossbite - occurs when the upper jaw is not slightly ahead of the lower jaw when biting normally.
Open bite - space between the biting surfaces of the front and/or side teeth when the back teeth come together. Midline Deviation - Occurs when the center of the upper arch is not aligned with the center of the lower arch. Diastema - gaps, or spaces, between teeth as a result of missing teeth or teeth that don't fill the mouth. Crowding - occurs when there are too many teeth to fit in the small dental arch.
1 - Fixed appliances: These are appliances, generally, glued or cemented to the teeth that cannot be removed, not even for oral hygiene.
2 - Fixed metallic appliances: are conventional appliances, which have devices named for brackets that are glued to the teeth, by means of a resin. The brackets have a channel known as a slot through which the wires that will move the tooth pass. These wires are attached to the brackets by elastic ligatures, known as rubber bands, which can be transparent or colored. In this type of appliance, we find bands that are usually cemented on the posterior teeth to obtain greater resistance to breakage. It is the most sought after device for bringing very satisfactory results and the cost is not so high.
3 - Aesthetic fixed braces: they have basically the same characteristics as metal braces, but they are much more aesthetic, as they are almost the color of the teeth, well known as transparent braces. They can be made of resin, polycarbonate, making it a more fragile device with a high rate of breakage. Porcelain ones are more resistant and less likely to stain, generally, they do not change color. The sapphire braces, which are made of monocrystalline porcelain, are highly aesthetic braces, but at a higher cost.
4 - Lingual braces- They are braces glued to the lingual faces of the teeth, at the back. Its great advantage is to be almost imperceptible, to be too aesthetic, as they almost do not appear when the patient smiles due to the dental face where they are positioned.
5 - Devices Autoligados- This type of device does not need the rubber to hold the wire in the slot, it has a kind of fin that locks the wire inside it. In conventional appliances, the rubbers that hold the wire. In self-ligating, this wire clamping system is already attached to the bracket.
6 - Fixed Expander Appliances: appliances that are fixed in the "roof of the mouth" and serve to increase the size of the palate or deskew posterior teeth that are lingually inclined, that is, the impression given is that the dental arch has been squeezed, is small. Indicated for corrections of posterior crossbites in children, adolescents and adults depending on the case.
7 - Mobile devices: These are devices that can be removed, can be removed at certain times of the day, depending on the orientation of the orthodontist. Among them we find:
8 - Orthopedic devices that have the function of trying to redirect the positioning of the bones of the face, therefore, being used when we still find bone growth;
9 - The retainers that maintain the dental positioning after treatment;
10 - The extra-oral arch that aims to distalize the maxillary molars and redirect maxillary growth;
11 - Aligners are more modern devices and mark a breakthrough in digital orthodontics. are devices